Tuesday, December 8, 2009

dOSE (SANSKRIT sCHOLARS)

  1. Bhaṭṭikāvya or "Bhatti's Poem" is one of the boldest experiments in classical literature: written in Sanskrit in the 7th century CE, in the formal genre of "great poem" (mahākāvya) it incorprates two of the most powerful Sanskrit traditions, the Ramayana and Panini's grammar, and several other minor ones, in one rich mix of science and art, both as a poetic retelling of the adventures of Rama and a compendium of examples of grammar and rhetoric.As literature, it stands comparison with the best of Sanskrit poetry.
  2. Pāṇini was an Ancient Indian Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati, Gandhara (fl. 4th century BCE.He is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (अष्टाध्यायी Aṣṭādhyāyī, meaning "eight chapters"), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.
  3. The work of the very early Indian grammarians has been lost; for example, the work of Sakatayana (roughly 8th c. BCE) is known only from cryptic references by Yaska (ca. 6th-5th c. BCE) and Panini. One of the views of Sakatayana that was to prove controversial in coming centuries was that most nouns are etymologically derivable from verbs.
  4. Yāska ( यास्क) was a Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pānini (fl. 4th c. BC), assumed to have been active in the 5th or 6th century BC.He is the author of the Nirukta, a technical treatise on etymology, lexical category and the semantics of words. He is thought to have succeeded Śākaṭāyana, an old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas, who is mentioned in his text.
  5. The Aindra (of Indra) school of Sanskrit grammar is one of the eleven schools of grammar mentioned in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. It is named after Indra in allusion to Lord Indra, the king of Gods in Hindu mythology. 
  6. Panini's grammar consists of four parts:
    Śivasūtra: phonology (notations for phonemes specified in 14 lines)
    Aṣṭadhyāyī: morphology (construction rules for complexes)
    Dhātupāṭha: list of roots (classes of verbal roots)
    Gaṇapāṭha: lists classes of primitive nominal stems
  7. Kātyāyana is known for two works:
    --------The Varttika, an elaboration on Pāṇini grammar. Along with the Mahābhāsya of Patañjali, this text became a core part of the vyākarana (grammar) canon. This was one of the six Vedangas, and constituted compulsory education for Brahmin students in the following twelve centuries.
    --------He also composed one of the later Sulba Sutras, a series of nine texts on the geometry of altar constructions, dealing with rectangles, right-sided triangles, rhombuses, etc.
  8. Varttikakara  is a Sanskrit word literally meaning a "Commentator". 
  9. Sureśvara is the commentator of the Advaita Vedanta school. His famous commentaries include the Bŗhadāraņyakopanişad-bhāşya-vārttika and the Taittirīya-vārttika.
  10. Patañjali  is the compiler of the Yoga Sutras, an important collection of aphorisms on Yoga practice, and also the author of the Mahābhāṣya, a major commentary on Panini's Ashtadhyayi. However, whether these two works are that of the same author or not remains in some doubt.



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