OPTIONAL SUBJECT - INDIAN HISTORY
- Prehistoric cultures: in India.
- Indus Civilization: Origins, the mature phase, extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures. Problems of decline.
- Geographical Distribution: characteristics of pastoral and farming communities outside the Indus region, from the neolithic to early iron phases.
- Vedic Society: The Vedic texts; changefrom Rigvedic to later Vedic phases. Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation; evolutuion of monarchy and varna system.
- State Formation: and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.
- The Mauryan Empire: Chandragupta; Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.
- Post-Mauryan India (BC 200- AD 300) Society: Evolution of jatis. The Satavahanas and state formation in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas; Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion : Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism; Jainism; Culture and art.
- The Guptas: and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political organisation of empire. Economy and society, Literature and science, Arts.
- Early Medieval India:Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Postition of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.
- Cultural Trends: 750-1200, Religious conditions: importance of temples and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Islam; Sufism. Literature and Science. Alberuni’s "India". Art and architecture.
- Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences. Delhi Sultanate under the "Slave" Rulers. Alauddin Khalji: Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlug's innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic movements in Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.
- The Fifteenth and Early 16th Century: major Provinicial dynasties; Vijaya-nagara Empire, The Lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire: Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration, The Portuguese, Montheistic movements: Kabir; Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti, Growth of regional literatures, Art and Culture.
- The Mughal Empire: 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative measures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb: expansion in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji. Culture: Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought: Abul Fazl; Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture. Economy: conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade; commerce with Europe. Social stratification and status of women.
- Decline of Mughal Empire: 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu language.