Wednesday, August 26, 2009

ROAD TO A RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT- History Notes

Provisions of 1773 Act
  • Court of Directors hitherto elected every year would be elected for 4 years
  • Total number of Directors 24,one fourth retiring every year
  • A Governor General in Bengal with four members to assist him and the quorum was 3
  • The member of Governor Generals EC to hold office for 5 years
  • The Governor General will have authority over Madras and Bombay
  • Supreme court was created
  • The court was given both original and appellate jurisdiction

Provisions of 1784 Act
  • A Board of Control with 6 members
  • Court of Directors retained real executive power and patronage and Board of control no power of patronage
  • The members of Governor Generals EC was reduced to 3
  • Only Covenanted servants will be appointed as members of the Council of Governor General
  • The Presidencies of Bombay and Madras were subordinated to the Governor General
  • Prohibition of aggressive wars and treaties with Indian princes
Provisions of 1813 Act
  • Company was deprived of monopoly of trade except trade with China and trade in tea
  • Rs 1 lakh for education in India
Provisions of 1833 Act
  • Centralized government in India and the Governor General of Bengal was made the Governor General of India
  • Bombay and Madras completely subordinated to the Governor General
  • A new member, a Law member in the Governor General's EC
  • Company lost its monopoly of tea trade and trade with China
  • "No Indian or natural born subject of the Crown resident in India by reason of birth,colour,descent, be disqualified for any employment under the company
  • Government of India to take serious measures to ameliorate the condition of slaves
Provisions of 1853 Act
  • The law member was made a full member
  • The number of Court of Directors reduced to 18, 6 nominated by the Crown and the quorum was fixed at 10
  • The power of patronage of the Directors was curbed
  • Services thrown to open competition
Provisions of 1858 Act
  • A Secretary of State for India and he will be assisted by 15 members of which 8 to be nominated by the Crown whereas 7 to be nominated by the Court of Directors
  • Half of the members must have worked in India for at least 10 years
  • Governor General was made Viceroy
  • Appointment to the Covenanted servants to be made by open competitive examination
Provisions of 1861 Act
  • Introduction of Portfolio system
  • A fifth member added to Viceroy's EC and he has to be a gentleman of legal profession
  • For legislative purpose Viceroy's EC was expanded by the addition of not less than 6 and not more than 12 members half of which must be non officials
  • Their tenure for 6 months
  • Power of Bombay and Madras Presidencies restored
Provisions of 1892 Act
  • Two fifth of the members of the council to be non officials
  • Principle of election introduced
  • Members could ask questions and general discussion on budget was allowed
Some points to remember
  • PSC introduced by the act of 1919
  • The preamble of the Act of 1919 was based on the August declaration of 1917
  • The income qualification of Hindu candidates was much more than that of Muslim candidates by the Act of 1909
  • Introduction of election by the Act of 1909
  • The details of electoral qualification and seat allocation was left to local authorities by the act of 1909
  • The Act of 1919 was the most short lived act
  • An Indian was appointed to the Viceroy's EC for the first time by the Act of 1909
  • By the Act of 1909 Executive Councils were created for Bengal,Bihar,Orissa and UP
  • By the Act of 1935, Council of States to have 250 members and Federal Assembly 375 members wherein Princely states to send 104 and 125 nominated candidates respectively
  • Provincial autonomy was granted by the Act of 1935.
  • A Federation by the Act of 1935 could not be formed unless states sent not less than 104 members to the Council of the States

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